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The following timeline was created and designed by Dr. Jonathan Dolhenty to help students get a comprehensive picture of the history of philosophy and, in the case of ancient and medieval philosophy, its relationship to other major events occurring during the same time period.

ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY
650 B.C.E.
THE IONIANS

Thales (624-546)
Anaximander (611-547)
Anaximenes (599-524)

The Period of Naturalism
The Beginning of Western Philosophy in Ancient Greece
600 B.C.E.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (540-460)

Pythagoras (570-?)

550 B.C.E.
THE ELEATIC SCHOOL

Xenophanes of Colophon
Parmenides of Elea (540-?)
Zeno of Elea

The Golden Age of Greece (480-399)

The Persian Wars

The Peloponnesian War

500 B.C.E.
THE PLURALISTS

Empedocles (490-430)
Anaxagoras (500-428)

450 B.C.E.
THE ATOMISTS

Democritus (460-370)
Leucippus

400 B.C.E.
THE SOPHISTS

Protagoras
Gorgias

The Metaphysical Period
350 B.C.E.
Socrates (470-399)

Plato (428-347)

Aristotle (384-322)

The Decline and Fall of Greek Freedom (399-322)

The Hellenistic Dispersion (322-146)

STOICISM
Zeno (336-264)

EPICUREANISM
Epicurus (342-270)

SKEPTICISM
Pyrrho of Elis (365-275)

ECLECTICISM
Antiochus

The Ethical Period
250 B.C.E.
GREEK SCIENCE

Euclid (c. 300)
Archimedes (287-212)
Apollonius (260-200)
Ptolemy

50 B.C.E.
THE JUDAIC-
ALEXANDRIAN SCHOOL

Philo of Alexandria
(30 BCE - 50 CE)

The Religious Period
Greece and Macedonia Become a Province of Rome (146)

The Roman Empire
(146 BCE - 192 CE)

Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (193-305)

The Triumph of Christianity (306-325)

THE NEO-
PYTHAGOREAN SCHOOL

Apollonius of Tiana

50 C.E.

to

900 C.E.

THE NEO-PLATONIC
SCHOOL

Ammonius Saccas of Alexandria (176-242)

Plotinus (205-270)
St. Augustine (354-430)
John Scotus Erigena
(815-877)
The Period of Scholastic Philosophy
The Dark Ages (566-1095)
1000 C.E.

to

1399 C.E.

THE MYSTICS

St. Peter Damian
(1007-1072)

St. Bernard of Clairvaux
(1091-1153)

THE DIALECTICIANS

St. Anselm (1033-1109)

Peter Abelard (1079-1142)

John of Salisbury (1110-1182)

The Middle Ages
Albertus Magnus (1193-1280)

Roger Bacon (1214-1294)

St. Bonaventure (1221-1274)

St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)

John Duns Scotus (1265-1308)

William of Ockham (?-1349)

1400 C.E.

to

1600 C.E.

Master Eckhart (1260-1327)
Beginning of Modern Humanism
The Renaissance (1304-1576)

The Reformation (1517-1564)

HUMANISM

Nicholas of Cusa (1401-1464)

Bernardio Telesio (1509-1588)

Giorano Bruno (1548-1600)

Tommaso Campanella
(1568-1639)

Niccolo Machiavelli
(1469-1527)

-- Top of Page --
MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY

1600 C.E. to the Present Day

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
EMPIRICISM

Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
John Locke (1632-1704)
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
George Berkeley (1685-1753)
David Hume (1711-1776)

RATIONALISM

Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
Benedict Spinoza (1632-1677)
Nicholas de Malebranche (1638-1715)
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
Gottfried W. von Leibnitz (1646-1716)

THE ENLIGHTENMENT

Baron de Montesquieu
(1689-1775)
Jean Jacques Rousseau
(1712-1778)
Voltaire (1694-1778)

KANTIAN CRITICISM

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

IDEALISM

Johann Fichte (1762-1814)
Friedrich W. von Schelling
(1775-1854)
Friedrich Schleiermacher
(1768-1834)
Georg Hegel (1779-1831)
Johann Herbart (1776-1841)
Arthur Schopenhauer
(1788-1860)
Rudolph Herman Lotze
(1817-1881)
Gustav Theodor Fechner
(1801-1887)

POSITIVISM

FRENCH
August Comte (1798-1857)

GERMAN
Ludwig Fauerbach (1804-1872)
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)

UTILITARIANISM

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
James Mill (1773-1836)
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
CRITICAL IDEALISM

Wilhelm Windelband (1848-1915)
Henrich Richert (1863-1936)
Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1912)
Rudolph Eucken (1846-1926)

GERMAN PSYCHOLOGISM

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

AMERICAN IDEALISM

Josiah Royce (1855-1916)
Bordon Parker Bowne
(1847-1910)

THE NEW IDEALISM

Thomas Hill Green (1836-1882)
Francis Herbert Bradley
(1846-1924)
Bernard Bosanquet (1848-1923)
Benedetto Croce (1866-1952)
Giovanni Gentile (1875-1944)

PRAGMATICISM

Charles Sander Peirce
(1839-1914)

EVOLUTIONISM

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919)

PRAGMATISM

William James (1842-1910)
John Dewey (1859-1952)

PSYCHOANALYSIS

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

NEO-POSITIVISM

Moritz Schlick (1882-1936)
Ernst Mach (1838-1016)
Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970)
Ludwig Wittgenstein
(1889-1951)
John Wisdom (1904-1993)
Willard Van Orman Quine (1908-2000)
Max Black (1909-1988)
Alfred J. Ayer (1910-1989)

EXISTENTIALISM

Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855)
Karl Barth (1886-1968)
Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)
Karl Jaspers (1883-1969)
Gabriel Marcel (1889-1973)
Jean Paul Sartre (1906-1980)

INTUITIONISM

Henri Bergson (1859-1941)

PHENOMENOLOGY

Edmund Husserl (1859-1938)
Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961)

NEO-REALISM

Franz Bretano (1838-1917)
Alexius Meinong (1853-1920)
Edmund Husserl (1859-1938)
S. Alexander (1859-1938)
Alfred North Whitehead
(1861-1947)
Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)
George Santayana (1863-1952)
G.E. Moore (1873-1958)

THE FRANKFURT SCHOOL

Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979)
Theodor Adorno (1903-1969)
Erich Fromm (1900-1980)
Jurgen Habermas (1929- )

CRITICAL RATIONALISM

Karl Popper (1902-1994)

PHILOSOPHICAL HERMENEUTICS

Hans-Georg
Gadamer (1900- )

 

NEO-PRAGMATISM

Richard Rorty (1931- )

CULTURAL THEORY, STRUCTURALISM, POSTMODERNISM, & DECONSTRUCTIONISM
OBJECTIVISM

Ayn Rand (1905-1982)
Nathaniel Branden (1930- )

Gyorgy Lukacs (1885-1971)
Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937)
Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913)
Claude Levi-Strauss (1908- )
Michel Foucault (1926-1984)
Jacques Derrida (1930- )
THE REVIVAL OF CLASSICAL REALISM

Jacques Maritain (1882-1973)
Mortimer Adler (1902-2001)
John Wild (1902-1972)
Jonathan Dolhenty (1938- )


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