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ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY - INDEX

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TABLE OF CONTENTS


General Information

Background Information

About Mohammed,
the founder of Islam


Philosophers

Al-Kindi
(? - 873)

Essay


Al-Farabi
(c.870 - 950)

Essay


Avicenna
(979 - 1037)

Essay


Al-Ghazali
(1059 - 1111)

Essay


Ibn Tufail
(c. 1105 - 1185)

Essay


Avenpace [Ibn Badjdja]
(c. 11th century - 1138)

Essay


Averroes [Ibn Roshd]
(1126 - 1198)

Essay


Muhammad Iqbal
(1873 - 1938)

GROUNDWORK IN
ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY

An Examination of Issues in Epistemology, Metaphysics, and Philosophy of Religion in the Context of Modern Western Philosophy

by Macksood A. Aftab

Introduction

Philosophy and Islam

Analytical Arguments

Cosmological Arguments

Teleological Arguments

Kant's Critique of
Empirical Evidence

Ontological Arguments

Arguments Against the
Existence of God

The Problem of Evil

The Free Will Defense

Islamic Reaction to the
Problem of Evil

Arguments from
Religious Experience

Al-Ghazzali

Iqbal's Critique of Ghazzali

Muhammad Iqbal

Conclusion

Bibliography


INTERNET RESOURCES


Background Information

Greek philosophy was the major formative influence on the later philosophical traditions of Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. In all three, the theories of the Greeks, particularly Plato and Aristotle, were employed to clarify and develop the basic beliefs of the religious traditions.

In the Islamic tradition the starting point was the work of Plato and Aristotle. The 9th-century Neoplatonist al- Kindi was followed by al-Farabi, who drew on both Plato and Aristotle to create a universal Islamic philosophy.

The most important of the medieval Muslim philosophers, however, was Avicenna (ibn Sina). Starting from the distinction between essence and existence, Avicenna developed a metaphysics in which God, the necessary being, is the source of created nature through emanation. Both his metaphysics and his intuitionist theory of knowledge were influential in the later Middle Ages as well as in the later history of Islamic thought.

The philosophical tradition did not go unchallenged, however. The 11th-century theologian and mystic al-Ghazali mounted a critique of philosophy, specifically Avicenna's, that is rich in argument and insight. Al-Ghazali's Incoherence of the Philosophers provoked a response by Averroes ibn Rushd entitled the Incoherence of the Incoherence, in which al-Ghazali's arguments are countered point for point. Averroes was best known, however, as an interpreter of Aristotle and excited great influence on all subsequent thinkers in the Aristotelian tradition.

In the later Middle Ages the historian and philosopher Ibn Khaldun produced a trenchant critique of culture, and the elaboration of metaphysics and epistemology was carried on in the theosophical schools of Islamic mysticism.


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